Disorders of Digestive System

Hey All AIPMT Biology Aspirants, read out the next AIPMT Biology Study material/ Notes of Disorders of Digestive System, useful for AIPMT Biology.

  • Inflammation of Intestinal Tract: Most common ailment caused by bacterial or viral infections. Parasites of the intestine like tape worm, round worm, thread worm, hook worm, pin worm, etc.are also responsible for inflammation.
  • Jaundice: The liver is affected; skin and eyes turn yellow due to the deposit of bile pigments. Also refer to ‘Liver and Gall Bladder’ section of notes.
  • Vomiting: It is the ejection of stomach contents through the mouth. This reflex action is controlled by the vomit centre in the medulla. A feeling of nausea precedes vomiting.
  • Diarrhoea: Abnormal frequency of bowel movement and increased liquidity of the faecal discharge is known as diarrhoea. It reduces the absorption of food. Frequent diarrhea can result in dehydration and electrolyte imbalance in the body.
  • Constipation: In constipation, the feces are retained within the rectum as the bowel movements occur irregularly. Decreased motility of the intestines also leads to difficult defecation. As the feces remain in the colon for prolonged periods, excessive water absorption occurs, and the feces become dry and hard.
  • Indigestion: In this condition, the food is not properly digested leading to a feeling of fullness. The causes of indigestion are inadequate enzyme secretion, anxiety, food poisoning, over eating, and spicy food.
  • Heartburn: Feeling of acid reflux, i.e., backflow of chyme with HCl from the stomach into the lower end of the esophagus. Resulting irritation of the esophagus near the heart is called as heartburn.
  • Gastric ulcer: Acid-tolerant bacteria Helicobacter pylori cause gastric ulcer in stomach.
  • Mumps: Inflammation and enlargement of the parotid glands by mumps virus (Paramyxovirus). Causes extreme pain in the throat, especially when swallowing sour foods or acidic juice.
  • Lactose intolerance: When absorptive cells of the small intestine fail to produce enough lactase required for the digestion of lactose, undigested lactose in chyme starts accumulating. Then bacterial fermentation of this undigested lactose occurs in colon which results in the production of gases (usually hydrogen). Symptoms of lactose intolerance include diarrhea, gas, bloating, and abdominal cramps after consumption of milk and other dairy products.
  • Dental caries or Tooth decay: Gradual demineralization and softening of enamel and dentin of tooth. It begins when bacteria act on sugars present in food to produce acids that demineralize the enamel.
  • Flatus: Air (gas) in the stomach or intestine, usually expelled through the anus. It results from gas released during the breakdown of foods in the stomach or from swallowing air or gas-containing substances such as carbonated drinks.
  • Belching (burping): If the gas is expelled through the mouth, it is called belching or burping or eructation. 
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