Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell

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There are two fundamentally different types of cells: Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell. Prokaryotes include both the Bacteria and Archaea, while Algae, Fungi, Protozoa, higher Plants, and Animals are all Eukaryotes. Prokaryotic cell has much simpler morphology than eukaryotic cell. Prokaryote (pro= before; karyon= nucleus) means having primordial nucleus; they lack true membrane-bound nucleus.

Eukaryote (eu=true; karyon= nucleus) means having true nucleus; they have true membrane-bound nucleus. Other differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell are discussed below:

Property/ Structure Prokaryotic Cell Eukaryotic Cell
Cell Size 1-10 µm 10-100 µm
Cell Wall Present; of Peptidoglycan Absent in animals; Plants have of Cellulose; Fungi have of Chitin
Cytoskeleton Absent Present
True Nucleus Absent;  Nucleoid is present Present
Nuclear membrane Absent Present
DNA Single circular DNA without Histones (Naked DNA) Linear DNA molecules with Histones
No. of Chromosome One More than one
Introns in Genes Absent Present; very common
Nucleolus Absent Present
Mitochondria Absent Present
Chloroplasts Absent Present
Endoplasmic reticulum Absent Present
Golgi Apparatus Absent Present
Ribosomes 70S 80S (Except in mitochondria and chloroplasts)
Plasmid (Extra-chromosomal circular DNA) Often present Absent
Cell Division by Binary Fission, Budding;

No Mitosis & Meiosis

By Mitosis & Meiosis
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