AIPMT-NEET Biology Aspirants, read out the next AIPMT-NEET Biology Study material/ Notes about Orders of Class Mammalia.
Mammals are called so because they have mammary glands for the production of milk to nourish their young ones. Mammals are warm-blooded animals with four-chambered heart. Respiration occurs through lungs. Skin of mammals has hair, sweat glands and sebaceous (oil) glands. Mammals give birth to young ones directly (viviparous), but exceptions are Platypus and Echidna which lay eggs (oviparous) and Kangaroo which give birth to very poorly developed young ones.
Mammals have two pair of limbs adapted for running, walking, flying, climbing, swimming, or burrowing and have external ears or pinnae. Sexes are separate and fertilization is internal. They are adapted for variety of habitats- deserts, mountains, polar ice, forests, water etc.
Below is the table showing orders of class mammalia with examples:
|Monotremata||Lay eggs (oviparous); no nipples; young ones suck milk from fur of mother||Platypus (Ornithorhynchus), Echidna|
|Marsupialia||Completes embryonic development in pouch on mother’s body||Kangaroo (Macropus), Opossum, Koala|
|Proboscidea||Long, muscular trunk; thick, loose skin; upper incisors elongated as tusks||Elephant (Elephas)|
|Tubulidentata||Teeth consists of many thin tubes cemented together; eat ants and termites||Aardvark|
|Sirenia||Aquatic; fin-like forelimbs; and no hindlimbs; herbivores||Manatees, Dugongs|
|Hyracoidea||Short legs; stumpy tail; complex, multi-chambered stomach; herbivores||Hyrax|
|Xenarthra/ Edentata||Reduced teeth or no teeth; herbivores or carnivores||Sloth (herbivorous); Anteaters, armadillos (carnivorous); Tamandua|
|Rodentia||Largest mammalian order; Chisel-like continuously growing incisors of upper and lower jaws; perform gnawing; herbivores||Squirrels, Beavers, Rats (Rattus), Porcupines, Mice, chipmunks|
|Lagomorpha||Chisel-like incisors; hind legs longer than fore-legs; adapted for running and jumping; herbivores||Rabbits, Hares, Picas|
|Primates||Opposable thumb; forward-facing eyes; well-developed cerebral-cortex, omnivores||Lemurs, Monkeys (Macaca), chimpanzees, gorillas, humans, golden-lion tamarin|
|Carnivora||Sharp, pointed canine teeth and molars for shearing; carnivores; predatory mammals||Dog (Canis), Cat (Felis), Bear, Wolf, Weasels, Otters, Seals, Walruses, Coyote, Tiger (Panthera tigris), Lion (Panthera leo)|
|Perissodactyla||Skull usually elongate; Hooves with an odd number of toes in each foot; herbivores (primarily grazers)||Horses (Equus), Zebras, Tapirs, Rhinoceros|
|Chiroptera||Adapted for flying; broad skinfold that extends from elongated fingers to body and legs; carnivores or herbivore; fruiteaters, bold feeders, fish eaters; second largest mammalian order||Bats, Flying fox (Pteropus)|
|Eulipotyphla/ Insectivora||Mainly eat insects and small invertebrates||Moles, Shrews – these are core insectivores|
|Cetartiodactyla/ Artiodactyla||Hooves with an even number of toes in each foot (digit one, two or five reduced or lost); herbivores||Sheep, Pigs, Cattle, Deer, Giraffe, Artiodactyls , hippopotamus, camel (Camelus)|
|Cetacea||Fully Aquatic mammals; Stream-lined body; forelimbs are paddle-like flippers for swimming and no hindlimbs; thick layer of insulating blubber(fat), Carnivores||Whales (Balaenoptera), Dolphin (Delphinus), Porpoise|
NOTE: Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla are also called as Ungulates (ungula= hoof).